The Marshall Plan was officially called the European Recovery Program but was named after US Secretary of State George Marshall. The logic was that by helping to restore the economic strength of countries ravaged by the war the spread of Communism would be halted. The fear of Communism spread to both sides of the aisle and the plan received bipartisan support in Washington.
The Soviet Union, unwilling to allow the United States any control over their economy, rejected the aid and attempted to create their own economic recovery plan even though they were required to pay large amounts of money in reparations.
The Marshall Plan focused on reducing artificial trade barriers and modernizing industry. The effects of reduced discontent and increased political stability all but eliminated the communist parties in Western Europe. There is some debate as to whether or not the Marshall Plan played such a large part in the recovery of the Western European economy but if success is measured by the effects on the spread of Communism the plan was an overwhelming success.